Evolution of Education in India since 2001

Photo : Alfredo Cuomo High. Sec School, Sendivakkam, India

In 2001 the Cuomo Foundation started its activities in India. From those early times, the education in India has significantly evolved.

(Source: “Educational Statistics at a Glance 2016” Government of India, Ministry of Human Resource Development)

The bright line is that from 2001 to 2011, the increase in adult literacy rate was higher among females than males and the gender gap was also narrowing down.

The Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) for all persons in elementary education increased from 81.6% in 2000-01 to 96.9% in 2014-15. At this level, the GER for boys increased by 4.5 (from 90.3% to 94.8%) and for girls by 26.4 (from 72.4% to 99.2%) during the stipulated period.

For the year 2015-2016, the total enrolment in higher education has been estimated to be 34.6 million with 18.6 million boys and 16 million girls. Girls constitute 46.2% of the total enrolment

Education is the single most important factor to ensure gender equality and empowerment. The Gender Parity Index (GPI) is the ratio of the number of female students enrolled at primary, secondary and tertiary levels of education to the corresponding number of male student in each level. During 2010-11 to 2014-15, substantial progress has been achieved towards gender parity in education as revealed by GPI in the following figure:

This increase in the enrolment ratio is connected to a growing awareness of the importance of the education by the Indian government as revealed by the Public Expenditure on Education:

Year Public Expenditure on Education (Rs. crore)

2000-01 : 82 486.48 Rs. crore
2013-14 : 465 142.80 Rs. crore

On higher education for the year 2015-16, the maximum numbers of Students are enrolled in Bachelor of Arts (B.A. programme), followed by Bachelor of Science (B.Sc.) and Bachelor of Commerce (B.Com. programmes). Only 10 Programmes out of approximately 180 cover 83% of the total students enrolled in higher education.

Bachelor of Arts (B.A.) has 98.9 lakh students enrolled in it which is the highest enrolment. The percentage of male is 47% and female is 53%. Bachelor of Science (B.Sc.) has 42.9 lakh students enrolled in total and out of them 52% are male students. 38.6 lakh students are enrolled in B.Com. and out of them 53.8% are from male category and 46.2% are from female category.